In the pre-civilization era, people used meat as their main source of nutrition. They also used green leaves, seeds, fruits, and wild plants for supplement. Their dietary style is now called the “Hunter-gatherer’s Diet” or “Paleolithic Diet.”  According to reports, during the era, there were no signs of diseases such as coronary artery disease or cancer, and very little sign of any other diseases.
Since the advent of agriculture, people have increasingly replaced the traditional diet with products of agriculture, such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and others. With the technological advancement that have been applied to agriculture, people have fallen in love with the sweetness of these products, especially sugar, refined grains and grain products, and fruits.
In more recent decades, thanks to the national policies of the US and other countries, which serve to protect their agricultural production,  people have consumed more grains and fruits, which are abundant in carbohydrates.
During the same period, nutritional and medical professionals have believed that carbohydrates are the best source of nutrition. They reason that carbohydrates generate only 4 kcal/gram of energy, while fats generate 9 kcal/gram and proteins 4kcal/gram. Based on an individual’s daily energy requirement, carbohydrates can afford the individual to eat a wider variety and a greater amount of foods than if they were eating higher fat foods. [3, 4]
Furthermore, nutritional and medical professionals alike have also believed that fats are the cause for obesity/overweight, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, cancer, and other disorders. They have become ‘lipophobic’. [5, 6, 7] At the same time, they are still unsure of the impact on our health from using more protein for our nutrition. They are somewhat ‘aminophobic’.
A majority of nutritional and medical professionals continue to promote the consumption of carbohydrate, but not of fats and proteins. [8, 9] Also, the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the food pyramid still recommend heavy consumption of carbohydrates. [10, 11, 12]
During the recent decades, we have encountered a rapid rise in number of difficult medical problems, especially overweight/obesity and diabetes mellitus, as well as their complications.
Concurrently, we have witnessed a growing number of cancers. Until recently, fats had been thought responsible for the development of cancers.  Now, more evidence shows a link between hyperglycemia and some, if not all, cancers.  With better design of research projects, we can expect that this link will become apparent.
Most importantly, we must recognize and bear in mind that excessive carbohydrate intake causes hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, and overweight/obesity. 
What we have known about glucose and some, if not all, cancers so far is:
2. Hyperglycemia is inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. 
5. Cancer facilitates glycolysis that increases non-enzymatic glycation between glucose and proteins. 
Applying the behaviors of cancers, we are able
1. to detect cancers, with radioactive tracer attached to glucose derivatives, e.g. PET Scan tracer attached to FDG, an analog of glucose, 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. After cancer cells take in the glucose analog, which is attached to the tracer, PET Scan can locate the site(s) and measure the size(s) of cancers. [16, 35]
2. to develop carbohydrate-based cancer vaccines. 
Can we do something about preventing cancers from happening to us in the first place? While we are still unsure of the real cause(s) for our ordinary cells to become cancer cells, we blame genes, inflammation, biochemical reactions, physical irritation, infections, environmental pollutants, fats, and many others for the initiation of cancer. Until recent years we had never suspected carbohydrates to be a possible cause. However, we do not have to become ‘carbophobic’. We just have to mindfully use carbohydrates.
While hoping more research projects will focus on the relationship between carbohydrates and cancer, several articles already exist that implicate carbohydrates in the development of various cancers.
Robert Su, Pharm.B., M.D.
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- Su RK, “Paleolithic Diets with Dag Viljen Poleszynski, PhD (Ep. 16).“ The Podcast. Carbohydrates Can Kill. September 29, 2010.
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- Su RK. “The Dietary Guidelines 2010 Must Do No Harm Or Be Overhauled.” The Blog. Carbohydrates Can Kill. July 7, 2010.
- Su RK “Dietary Guidelines are against science (Part 1) with Professors Richard Feinman & Richard Wood (Ep. 18).” The Podcast. Carbohydrates Can Kill. October 13, 2010.
- Su RK “Pam Schoenfeld and Adele Hite : The 2010 USDA Food Pyramid Proposal Is Wrong (Ep. 19).” The Podcast. Carbohydrates Can Kill. October 20, 2010.
- Chao A. et al “Meat Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer.” Journal of American Medical Association, (JAMA). Volume 293, Number 2, Pages 172-182. January 12, 2005.
- Jee SH et al. “Fasting serum glucose level and cancer risk in Korean men and women.” Journal of American Medical Association, (JAMA). Volume 293, Number 2, Pages 194-202. January 12, 2005.
- Su RK. “Carbohydrates Can Kill: Hyperglycemia is problematic but preventable by restricting carbohydrates.” The Blog. Carbohydrates Can Kill. August 16, 23, & 30, 2010.
- Lindholm P et al. “Influence of the Blood Glucose Concentration on FDG Uptake in Cancer—A PET Study.” The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 1993;34:1
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